BAHASA INGGRIS BISNIS 2_CONDITIONAL CENTENCES

Posted: March 18, 2012 in Uncategorized
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CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

 

Conditional sentence adalah kalimat yang terdiri dari dua klausa (if clause dan result clause) yang salah satunya berisi syarat/kondisi yang memengaruhi kebenaran kalimat tersebut. Posisi kedua klausa dalam kalimat ini bisa berubah-ubah, bisa if clause terlebih dahulu ataupun result clause terlebih dahulu, tanpa mengubah arti kalimat.Namun demikian, terdapat perbedaan struktur kalimat tergantung klausa yang mana yang diletakkan terlebih dahulu. Jika If clause diletakkan terlebih dahulu, maka diperlukan koma (,) untuk memisahkan kedua klausanya.

 

  1. SUMMARY OF BASIC VERB FORM USAGE IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

Meaning of the

 “if clause

Verb form in the

if clause

Verb form in the

result clause

 

 

(a)    If I have enough time, I write to my parents every week.

(b)   If I have enough time tomorrow, I will write to my parents.

True in the present / future

Simple present

Simple present

Simple future

Untrue in the present  / future

Simple past

Would + simple form

(c)       If I had enough time now, I would write to my parents. (in truth, I do not have enough time, so I will not write to them)

Untrue in the past

 Past perfect

Would have + past participle

(d)      If I had had enough time, I would have writtten to my parents yesterday. (in truth, I did not have enough time, so I did not write to them)

 

  1. TRUE IN THE PRESENT OR FUTURE

Tipe I (present/future-true condition)

Tipe yang pertama digunakan dalam kalimat yang kejadiannya terjadi pada rentang waktu kini (present) hingga masa depan (future). Dalam tipe pertama ini, kalimat ini mungkin saja benar jika syaratnya terpenuhi.

à           Rumus Conditional tipe I

IF + S + Present Tense, S + Future Tense

Contoh :

(e)      If I don’t eat breakfast, I alwasy get hungry during class.

(f)       Water freezes (will freeze) if the temperature goes below 32o F/0oC.

 

(g)      If I don’t eat breakfast tomorrow morning, I will get hungry during class.

(h)      If the weather is nice tomorrow, we will go on a picnic.

In (e) : the simple present is used in the result clause to express a habitual activity or situation.

In (f) : Either the simple present or the simple future is used in the result clause to express an established, predictable fast.

In (g) and (h) : The simple future is used in the result clause when the sentence concerns a particular activity or situation in the future.

Note : The simple present not the simple future, is used in the “if clause”.

 

 

  1. UNTRUE  (CONTRARY TO FACT) IN THE PRESENT / FUTURE

Tipe II (present-untrue condition)

Tipe kedua ini juga memiliki rentang waktu masa kini dan masa depan sebagaimana tipe pertama. Yang membedakan tipe ini dengan yang pertama adalah kalimat ini digunakan untuk kalimat pengandaian. Kenyataan yang terjadi berlawanan dengan result clause kalimat ini.

 

è Rumus Conditional Tipe II
 If + S + Past Tense, S + Past Future
Contoh :

(i)     If I taught this class, I wouldn’t give tests.

(j)     If he were here right now, he would help us.

(k)   If I were you, I would accept their invitation.

In (i) : In truth, I don’t teach this class.

In (j) : In truth, he is not here right now.

In (k) : In truth, I am not you.

Note : Were is used for both singular and plural subjects. Was (with I, he, she, it) is sometimes used in very informal speech but is not generally considered grammatically acceptable.

 

  1. UNTRUE (CONTRARY TO FACT) IN THE PAST

Tipe III (past-untrue condition)

Tipe yang ketiga adalah untuk kejadian di waktu lampau, dan kejadiannya berlawanan dengan yang terdapat di kalimatnya. Atau, bisa dikatakan tipe ketiga digunakan untuk kejadian yang sudah terlanjur terjadi dan tak mungkin berubah lagi.

è Rumus Conditional Tipe III

If + s + Past Perfect, S + Future Past Perfect
Contoh :

(l)       If you had told me about the problem, I would have helped you.

(m)   If they had studied, they would have passed the exam.

(n)     If I hadn’t slipped on the ice, I wouldn’t have broken my arm.

In (l) : In truth, you did not tell me about it.

 

In (m) : In truth, they did not study. They failed the exam.

In (n) : In truth, I slipped on the ice. I broke my arm.

Note : The auxiliary verb are almost always contracted in speech. “If you’d told me, I would’ve helped you (OR: I’d’ve helped you)

           

 

 

Sumber :

  1. Azar, Betty Schrampfer. Understanding And Using, English Grammer Second Edition. 1989. Prentice Hall Regents. New Jersey.
  2. http://linggris.wordpress.com/2010/07/25/conditional-sentences/ (Blog).
  3. http://zifa-kireiwazifa.blogspot.com/2010/03/pengertian-conditional-sentences.html (Blog).

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