The Relative Pronoun

Posted: June 17, 2012 in Uncategorized

A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb.

An independent clause is a complete sentence. It contains the main subject and verb of a sentences. It is also called a main clause.

A dependent clause is not a complete sentence. It must be connected to an independent clause.

An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. It describes, identifies, or gives further information about a noun. An adjective clause is also called a relative clause.

A.    Using Subject Pronouns : WHO, WHICH, THAT

Example : – I thanked the woman.

–          She helped me.

(a)    I thanked the woman who helped me.

(b)   I thanked the woman that helped me.

Example : – The book is mine.

–          It is on the table.

(c)    The book which is on the table is mine.

(d)   The book that is on the table is mine.

In (a) : I thanked the woman = an independent clause.

                who helped me = an adjective clause.

The adjective clause modifies the noun woman.

In (a) : who is the subject of the adjective clause.

In (b) : that is the subject of the adjective clause.

Note : (a) and (b) have the same meaning.

Who = used for people.

Which = used for things.

That = used for both people and things.

 

B.     Using Subject Pronouns : WHOM, WHICH, THAT

Example : – The man was Mr. Jones.

–          I saw him.

(e)    The man who(m) I saw was Mr. Jones.

(f)    The man that I saw was Mr. Jones.

(g)   The man Ø I saw was Mr. Jones.

 
   

 

Example : – The movie wasn’t very good.

–          We saw it last night.

(h)   The movie which we saw last night wasn’t very good.

(i)     The movie that we saw last night wasn’t very good.

(j)     The movie Ø we saw last night wasn’t very good.

Notice in the examples : the adjective clause pronouns are placed at the beginning of the clause.

In (e) : who is usually used instead of whom, especially in speaking. Whom is generally used only in very formal English.

In (g) and (j) : an object pronoun is often omitted from an adjective clause. ( a subject pronoun, however, may not be omitted).

Who(m) = used for people.

Which = used for things.

That = used for both people and things.

 

C.     Using Subject Pronouns : WHOSE

Example : – I know the man.

–          His bicycle was stolen.

(k)   I know the man whose bicycle was stolen.

Example : – The student writes well.

–          I read her composition.

(l)     The student whose composition I read writes well.

Whose is used to show possession. It carries the same meaning as other possessive pronouns used as adjectives : his, her, its and their. Like his, her, its and their, whose is connected to a noun.

his bicycle à whose bicycle.

her composition à whose composition.

Both whose and the noun it is connected to are placed at the beginning of the adjective clause. Whose cannot be omitted.

Mr. Catt has a painting. Its value is inestimable.

(m) Mr. Catt a painting whose value is inestimable.

Whose usually modifies “people” but it may also be used to modify “things” as in (m).

Exercise 37

Relative Clauses

(Page 138)

 

 

1.       Whose

2.       Whose

3.       Which you spoke yesterday

4.       Who the highest in the school

5.       What

6.       Who

7.       Whose

8.       Whose

9.       What

10.   What

11.   Whose

12.   What

13.   Whose

14.   That

15.   Whose

 

 

 

 

 

Exercise 38

Relative Clause Reduction

(Page 139)

 

 

1.       Chosen

2.       Accepted

3.       On the table

4.       Brought

5.       Drinking

6.       A professor

7.       Talking

8.       On the top

9.       Counted

10.   A doctor

Jack had his house painted.

This sentence is similar in meaning to: Someone painted Jack’shouse. OR Jack’s house was painted by someone. Causative verbs expressthe idea of someone causing something to take place. Causative verbs canbe similar in meaning to passive verbs.

Examples:
• My hair was cut. (passive)
• I had my hair cut. (causative)

Make

‘Make’ as a causative verb expresses the idea that the person requiresanother person to do something.
Construction Chart

Subject + Make + Person + Base Form of Verb

Examples:
• Peter made her do her homework.
• The teacher made the students stay after class.

Make digunakan untuk memaksa seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Bentuknya adalah make + orang + verb.
Contoh:
• My teacher made me apologize for what I had said.
• Did somebody make you wear that ugly hat?
• She made her children do their homework.

 

Passive Voice

                        S          V        O

Active : (a) Mary helped the boy

Form of passive : be + past participle

                             S                    V

Passive : (b) The boy was helped by Mary

In the passive, the object of verb becomes the subject of the passive verb : “the boy” in (a) becomes the subject of the passive verb in (b). (a) and (b) have the same meaning.

TENSES

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

simple present

Tom opens the door

The door is opened by Tom

present progessive

Tom is opening the door

The door is being opened by Tom

present perfect

Tom has opened the door

The door has been opened by Tom

simple past

Tom opened the door

The door was opened by Tom

past progessive

Tom was opening the door

The door was being opened by Tom

past perfect

Tom had opened the door

The door had been opened by Tom

simple future

Tom will open the door

The door will be opened by Tom

be going to

Tom is going to open the door

The door is going to be opened by Tom

future perfect

Tom will have opened the door

The door will have been opened by Tom


Exercise 36

Posted: May 1, 2012 in Uncategorized

(Page 135) Causative Verbs
1. Leave
2. Repaired
3. Typed
4. Call
5. Painted
6. Wrote
7. Lie
8. Sent
9. to Cut
10. Sign
11. Leave
12. Washed
13. Fixed
14. Published
15. Find

EXERCISE 32 – 34

Posted: April 13, 2012 in Tugas2

Exercise 32 page 120
1. People enough
2. French enough
3. Enough time
4. Fast enough
5. Soon enough
6. Enough early
7. Hard enough
8. Slowly enough
9. Enough flour
10. Books enough

Exercise 33 page 121
1. Because of
2.Because of
3. Because of
4. Because
5. Because
6. Because
7. Because of
8. Because of
9. Because of
10.Because of

Exercise 34 page 124
1. So
2. Such
3. Such
4. So
5. So
6. So
7. Such
8. So
9. So
10. Such
11. So
12. So
13. Such
14. So
15. So

Exercise 21 : Conditional Sentences

 

1.        Understanded

2.        Would not have been

3.        Will give

4.        Would have told

5.        Are

6.        Had

7.        Stoped

8.        Will need

9.        Finded

10.    Enjoyed

11.    Paint

12.    Were

13.    Write

14.    Permited

15.    Would spend

16.    Will accept

17.    Buy

18.    Had decided

19.    Would have written

20.    Will leak

21.    Could have studied

22.    Hears

23.    See

24.    Gets

25.    Turn

26.    Are

27.    Would have called

28.    Would have talked

29.    Explained

30.    Spoke


 

Exercise 22 : Used To


1.        Eating

2.        Eats

3.        Swim

4.        Likes

5.        Speaking

6.        Studying

7.        Dance

8.        Sleeping

9.        Eating

10.    Eating

 

 

Exercise 26 : Adjective and Adverbs

 

1.        Well

2.        Intense

3.        Brightly

4.        Fluent

5.        Fluently

6.        Smooth

7.        Accurately

8.        Bitter

9.        Soonly

10.    Fastly

 

 

Exercise 27 : Linking (Copulative) Verbs

 

1.        Terrible

2.        Good

3.        Good

4.        Calm

5.        Sick

6.        Quick

7.        Diligent

8.        Vehement

9.        Relaxed

10.    Noisy

 

 

Exercise 28 : Comparisons

 

1.        As

2.        More

3.        As good

4.        More

5.        As

6.        More

7.        More

8.        Happier

9.        Is bader

10.    Is faster

 

 

Exercise 29 : Comparisons

 

1.        Than

2.        Than

3.        Than

4.        As

5.        Than

6.        Than

7.        Than

8.        Than

9.        Than

10.    Than

 

 

Exercise 30 : Comparisons

 

1.        Better

2.        Happiest

3.        Faster

4.        Creamiest

5.        More colorful

6.        Better

7.        Good

8.        More awkwardly

9.        Least

10.    Prettiest

11.    The best

12.    Than

13.    Less impressive

14.    Sicker

15.    When

16.    Twice as much as

17.    Little

18.    Many

19.    Farthest

20.    More famous

 

 

Exercise 31 : Nouns Functioning as Adjectives

 

1.        Twelve stories

2.        Languages

3.        Three acts

4.        Two days

5.        79 pieces

6.        Five shelves

7.        16 ounces

8.        Six quarts

9.        Bricks

10.    Ten speeds

 

 

Exercise 21 : Conditional Sentences

 

1.        Understanded

2.        Would not have been

3.        Will give

4.        Would have told

5.        Are

6.        Had

7.        Stoped

8.        Will need

9.        Finded

10.    Enjoyed

11.    Paint

12.    Were

13.    Write

14.    Permited

15.    Would spend

16.    Will accept

17.    Buy

18.    Had decided

19.    Would have written

20.    Will leak

21.    Could have studied

22.    Hears

23.    See

24.    Gets

25.    Turn

26.    Are

27.    Would have called

28.    Would have talked

29.    Explained

30.    Spoke


 

Exercise 22 : Used To


1.        Eating

2.        Eats

3.        Swim

4.        Likes

5.        Speaking

6.        Studying

7.        Dance

8.        Sleeping

9.        Eating

10.    Eating

 

 

Exercise 26 : Adjective and Adverbs

 

1.        Well

2.        Intense

3.        Brightly

4.        Fluent

5.        Fluently

6.        Smooth

7.        Accurately

8.        Bitter

9.        Soonly

10.    Fastly

 

 

Exercise 27 : Linking (Copulative) Verbs

 

1.        Terrible

2.        Good

3.        Good

4.        Calm

5.        Sick

6.        Quick

7.        Diligent

8.        Vehement

9.        Relaxed

10.    Noisy

 

 

Exercise 28 : Comparisons

 

1.        As

2.        More

3.        As good

4.        More

5.        As

6.        More

7.        More

8.        Happier

9.        Is bader

10.    Is faster

 

 

Exercise 29 : Comparisons

 

1.        Than

2.        Than

3.        Than

4.        As

5.        Than

6.        Than

7.        Than

8.        Than

9.        Than

10.    Than

 

 

Exercise 30 : Comparisons

 

1.        Better

2.        Happiest

3.        Faster

4.        Creamiest

5.        More colorful

6.        Better

7.        Good

8.        More awkwardly

9.        Least

10.    Prettiest

11.    The best

12.    Than

13.    Less impressive

14.    Sicker

15.    When

16.    Twice as much as

17.    Little

18.    Many

19.    Farthest

20.    More famous

 

 

Exercise 31 : Nouns Functioning as Adjectives

 

1.        Twelve stories

2.        Languages

3.        Three acts

4.        Two days

5.        79 pieces

6.        Five shelves

7.        16 ounces

8.        Six quarts

9.        Bricks

10.    Ten speeds